MAGNETIC AND ELECTROSTATIC NUCLEAR FUSION REACTOR




Redirecting to the latest CrossFire Fusion Reactor Concept ...  10   




pat. pend.: PCT/IB2008/054254 Nuclear Fusion Reactor - Core


1. Overview

CrossFire Fusion Reactor

The Magnetic and Electrostatic Nuclear Fusion Reactor, or simply CrossFire Fusion Reactor, is a nuclear fusion reactor designed by “Douglas” F. Palte for confining and fusing light atomic nuclei at considerable rates, in order to produce enormous quantities of energy without pollution and no neutron hazards.

This fusion reactor is comprised by six superconducting magnets set up to form a magnetic cusp region, where positive ions are injected. At the magnetic cusp region a negative voltage is applied and at the opposite end of each magnet a positive voltage is applied. The ions are accelerated electrostatically towards the negative potential passing through the magnetic cusp reaching the chamber interior, where the ions are confined radially by magnetic fields and longitudinally by electric fields, in a quasi-isotropic confinement. The ion injection is done continuously surrounding the magnetic cusp region to perform a three-dimensional injection. The positive voltage is adjusted so it only confines reactants, allowing the products from the fusion reactions to escape.

Nuclear Fusion

Nuclear fusion takes place when light atomic nuclei collide with each other and combine to form a heavier atomic nucleus releasing a tremendous amount of energy. For fusion reactions to take place, there needs to be kinetic energy and confinement to achieve collisions at the required rate. Nuclear fusion reactions have an energy density many times greater than nuclear fission. Nuclear fission involving uranium-235 and plutonium-239 produce more radiation hazards and radioactive waste than a conventional neutronic nuclear fusion involving deuterium and tritium, and the conventional neutronic nuclear fusion produces more neutrons than an aneutronic nuclear fusion involving boron hydrides, helium-3 and lithium hydride, which produce the non-radioactive waste helium-4. Both release millions of times more energy than chemical reactions.
Nuclear Fusion Reactor - Superconducting Magnet

Aneutronic Fusion Fuels

Fusion fuels for this fusion reactor can be composed of light atomic nuclei like hydrogen, deuterium, tritium, helium, lithium, beryllium, boron, and their various isotopes. Some isotopes like hydrogen-1, helium-3, lithium-6, lithium-7 and boron-11 are of interest for aneutronic nuclear fusion (low neutron radiation hazards), for example: [1]

1H + 2 6 Li 4He + (3He + 6Li) → 3 4He + 1 20.9  MeV ( 153  TJ/kg ≈  42  GWh/kg)
1H + 7 Li → 2  4He + 17.2  MeV ( 204  TJ/kg ≈ 56  GWh/kg)
3He  + 3 He 4He + 2 1H + 12.9  MeV ( 205  TJ/kg ≈ 57  GWh/kg)
1H + 11 B → 3 4He + 8.7  MeV ( 66  TJ/kg ≈ 18  GWh/kg)

Boron and helium-3 are special aneutronic fuels, because their primary reaction produces less than 0.1% of the total energy as fast neutrons, meaning that a minimum of radiation shielding is required, and the kinetic energy from fusion products is directly convertible into electricity with a high efficiency, more than 95%, as will be further described.

Boron is available in the Earth's crust and helium-3 is available in the lunar regolith, both are relatively plentiful if compared to tritium.
Nuclear Fusion Reactor - Power Plant

The CrossFire Fusion Approach

A group of superconducting magnets are set up to form a magnetic cusp region where an electric voltage is applied, and at distal ends of the magnets an opposite electric voltage is applied. A fuel is ionized by exchanging electrons with a ground electric potential becoming charged particles, which fall down to the magnetic cusp region reaching great kinetic energy of about 600keV (7 billion °C) at low energy consumption. The injection of charged particles is done around the entire region of the magnetic cusps to perform a three-dimensional injection. Inside the magnets, the charged particles move longitudinally describing a circular and helical orbit around the magnetic field lines keeping away from the magnet walls. The magnet walls are coated with a metal alloy like tungsten or depleted uranium for reflecting electromagnetic radiation (bremsstrahlung), mostly in X-ray range, back to plasma. At the region of the magnetic cusps, the magnetic field lines are curved, forcing the charged particles to describe a more elliptical and eccentric orbit, increasing electrostatic pressure at the region of the magnetic cusps making it very hard for the charged particles to escape this region (magnetic mirror). A continuous injection by an ion injection belt of charged particles makes this even more difficult. The magnetic fields act as a magnetic lens focusing (converging) the charged particles, and the electric fields, at distal ends of the magnets, act as an electrostatic lens focusing (converging) the particles as they approach while defocusing (diverging) them as they move back. Pulses on electrical currents of the magnets result in oscillations on the magnetic flux, transferring energy radially to plasma (pinch effect), which increases the fusion rate. When a nuclear fusion reaction occurs, the charged products of the reaction escape longitudinally, overcoming the electric field and they can then be deflected by magnetic and electric fields. For the nuclear fusion reactions to produce only charged products, and no neutrons, the fusion fuel must be aneutronic like Boron Hydrides, Helium-3 or Lithium Hydride. Aneutronic fuels release millions of times more energy than the fossil fuels, and the product of fusion reaction generally is the non-radioactive waste Helium-4.
Nuclear Fusion Reactor - Core
Using exclusively aneutronic fuels, calculations become more feasible because of the use of well-known formulas of physics and electricity, which can give a reasonable degree of predictability. Specific energy and charge-to-mass ratio are input parameters for calculating magnetic flux and electric voltages. The charge-to-mass ratio can be either positive or negative; however, it should be as low as possible, keeping the plasma in a quasi-neutral state, so it produces more energy and fewer instabilities.

Electricity Generation and Propulsion

If aneutronic fuels are considered, products from fusion reaction are positively charged, which can be deflected by magnetic and electric fields. Fusion products at high specific impulse values, fusion reactor with a higher power/weight ratio, implie a propulsion about a million times more powerful than a chemical rocket.
CrossFire Nuclear Fusion Reactor
A conversion to electricity is relatively simple. The conversion is done during the neutralization by a positive electric voltage to slow down and an electron gun to neutralize. A positive electric field forces the positively charged products to exchange their kinetic energy into potential energy. The positively charged products easily attract electrons from an electron gun, and the electron gun extracts electrons from a positive terminal of a capacitor increasing its positive voltage, which increase its stored energy (E=½CV²). A switching-mode power supply sends this energy to a battery bank. The current of electrons and the electric voltage is equal to electric power (P = V × I). This method of electricity conversion can exceed 95% of efficiency.[8]
See: Multiphase Thermoelectric Converter

Characteristics

 •  Flexibility for confining and fusing charged particles, comprising positive and negative ions from neutronic and aneutronic fuels. The nuclear fusion fuel can be composed of several light atomic nuclei like hydrogen, deuterium, tritium, helium, lithium, beryllium, boron, in particular boron hydrides and helium-3.
 •  Electrostatic Acceleration, having a convenient voltage setup, reach a very high kinetic energy of about 600keV (7 billion °C) with inexpensive energy consumption, and there is no inner grid to cause collisions and losses.
 •  Three-dimensional Injection and Confinement.
Increase of the probability and velocity of the fusion reactions and significant decrease of the scattering problem.
In a bi-dimensional injection, the electrostatic repulsion diverges the ion paths from the central point.
In a three-dimensional injection, the electrostatic repulsion converges the ion paths to the central point.
In the three-dimensional injection, the ion's kinetic energy will exchange into potential energy as they approach the central point, which means the kinetic energy must be higher than 123keV, about 600keV for boron hydrides.
The three-dimensional injection increases the probability of fusion reactions at the beginning, and the quasi-isotropic confinement will provoke the remaining fusion reactions after that.
 •  Simple and Consistent Calculations, which prove technical feasibility and give reasonable predictability of success.
 •  Plasma in a quasi-neutral state and a low charge-to-mass ratio (Coulomb/kg) is recommended. The fuel is injected with great kinetic energy (600keV), but in small quantities, and calculations are done for the magnetic and electric fields to confine the plasma, keeping it away from the chamber walls, preventing the high temperature plasma (7 billion °C) from causing a meltdown in the fusion reactor.
Technically feasible, nowadays there are superconducting magnets with 20 Tesla or more.
 •  Escape Mechanism, which solves problems like ionic saturation and energetic instability of the plasma. Also, appropriate for Direct Electricity Conversion and Propulsion.
 •  Based on isolated concepts that have already worked in particle accelerators and previous fusion approaches: electrostatic acceleration (Farnsworth-Hirsch Fusor), injection through magnetic cusps (Bussard Polywell, Limpaecher Plasma Containment), magnetic and electrostatic confinement (Penning Trap) and so on.
 •  Other features: multidirectional energy flow; resonance method; set of magnetic lenses for achieving the best focal length; chamber walls coated with tungsten or depleted uranium, for reflecting electromagnetic radiation (bremsstrahlung), mostly in X-ray range, back to plasma; system for recycling chamber heat energy for electric energy generation. All this will ensure this nuclear fusion reactor will become self-sustaining.

Advantages over other fusion approaches

 •  Quasi-isotropic confinement means that plasma does not rotate in a toroidal path as happens in Tokamaks.
 •  Calculated charge-to-mass ratio (Coulomb/kg), means that plasma confinement does not fail as happens in Tokamaks.
 •  No inner grid for causing losses as happens in the Farnsworth-Hirsch Fusor.[11]
 •  No recirculation of electrons to cause excessive cusp losses and bremsstrahlung radiation as happens in Polywell.[14]
 •  No outrageous energy consumption, as is required by Tokamaks and Laser Fusion Reactors.
 •  Uncomplicated formulas to support its technical feasibility.
 •  Continuous operation, no losses caused by repeated startup as happens in Tokamaks, Polywell and Laser Fusion.
 •  Well-defined cycles of energy, that is, electricity generation, heat recovering, and propulsion.

Preconditions

 •  Fusion fuel should be ionized with a predefined charge-to-mass ratio (C/kg). The charge-to-mass ratio should be as low as possible keeping plasma in a quasi-neutral state. The magnetic flux and electric voltages should be calculated taking into account the charge-to-mass ratio.
 •  The fusion fuel must be injected in small quantities in order to prevent uncontrolled magnetic reconnection.
 •  The magnets should preferably use superconducting technology to provide stronger magnetic fields to sustain a continuous fusion reaction with low power dissipation. A magnet bore coated with an alternate layer of tungsten and boron carbide (W/B4C) is recommended, to act as X-ray mirror, reflecting part of the electromagnetic radiation back to plasma.[13][14] [15]

Nuclear Fusion Reactor - Spacecraft

As an alternative source of energy, this fusion reactor could replace the 10 billion tons/year of carbon dioxide (CO2) from fossil fuels to only 7600 tons/year of clean, inert, safe and light helium gas.

As a propulsion system, it can signify an important breakthrough in space travel. See:
CrossFire Fusion Reactor - Spacecraft - Video
Electrodynamic Space Thruster - Video
Fast Interstellar Travel using Phase-shifted Electrodynamic Propulsion - Video
Phase Displacement Space Drive - Interstellar Propulsion - Video
Relativistic Phase Displacement Space Drive - Warping Space Time with Phased Standing Waves - Video
Phase-shift Plasma Turbine - Interplanetary Spaceflight - Video
Multiphase Thermoelectric Converter - Turning Waste Heat into Usable Electric Power - Video
Nuclear Fusion Reactor - Clean, Safe, and Environmentally Friendly Atomic Energy - Video

Contents
1. Overview
2. Background
3. Summary
4. Detailed Description
5. Operation of Invention
6. Power Plant for Testing
7. Calculations
8. Videos
9. Related Links
Support Project
FAQ



2. Background

As aforesaid, nuclear fusion takes place when light atomic nucleus with sufficient kinetic energy collides with each other to combine, overcoming electrostatic force repulsion, to form a heavier atomic nucleus releasing a tremendous amount of energy.

Nuclear fusion reactions have an energy density many times greater than nuclear fission. The nuclear fission involving uranium-235 and plutonium-239 produce more radiation hazards and radioactive waste than the conventional neutronic nuclear fusion involving deuterium and tritium. Both release millions of times more energy than the chemical reactions.

The development of a workable, self-sustaining, highly efficient and controlled nuclear fusion reactor for energy production has been tried for several decades.

To date, no practical nuclear fusion reactor was able to, at the same time, confine and keep the reactants with enough kinetic energy until they fuse at expressive rates and, mainly, release more energy than they consume.

Some reactors with different approaches have been tried: Tokamak, Levitated Dipole, Riggatron, Field-Reversed Configuration, Reversed Field Pinch, Magnetic Mirror Fusion Reactor, Spheromak, Laser Fusion, Z-machine, Focus Fusion, Farnsworth–Hirsch Fusor, Bussard Polywell, Muon-catalyzed Fusion, Heavy Ion Fusion, Magnetized Target Fusion, Colliding Plasma Toroid Fusion, Cold Fusion, Sonofusion, Pyroelectric Fusion and others.

The most promising nuclear fusion reactor design currently being developed and tested is a Tokamak type called ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) which relies on toroidal magnetic field to confine usually a mix of deuterium and tritium. The Tokamak reactors are giants and require a considerable amount of energy, much more than it produces, to maintain the magnetic field and the reactants with enough kinetic energy to fuse. The toroidal magnetic fields confines efficiently in two dimensions, i.e. only radially, allowing plasma rotate longitudinally in a closed path generating loss by electromagnetic radiation (synchrotron radiation) decreasing the plasma kinetic energy lowering the probability of fusion reactions and generates a plasma instability problem due to centrifugal force of particles moving along the curved toroidal magnetic field. Thus, it is inefficient for now due to its technical feasibility, high investment costs and long development time. Most of that one skilled in the area states that, likely, it will not be available before 2050.

The other types of reactor generate nuclear fusion at inexpressive rates (e.g., Cold Fusion) or consume more energy than they produce (e.g., Laser Fusion).

Most of the conventional reactors, e.g. Tokamak, usually are designed to fuse a mix of deuterium and tritium, which gives off 80% of its energy in the form of fast neutrons making the apparatus relatively radioactive. The energy of fast neutrons is collected by converting their thermal energy to electric energy, which is very inefficient (less than 30%).

The Field-Reversed Configuration or Magnetic Mirror Reactor has an unburned fuel leakage problem and the method of direct energy conversion to electricity (e.g.: US patent: 6628740, 6664740 and 6888907), although the best at moment, is relatively very complex and inefficient.

The Farnsworth–Hirsch Fusor (US patent: 3258402, 3386883, 3530036, 3530497, 3533910, 3655508 and 3664920) take advantage of electrostatic acceleration consuming low energy to reach great kinetic energy about 170KeV (2 billion °C) against 10 KeV (100 million °C) of Tokamaks, which uses inefficient methods like ohmic heating. The Farnsworth–Hirsch Fusor, which relies on electrostatic fields for acceleration and confinement, has an unsolvable grid-loss problem, where injected ions create a positively charged cloud around the negative central grid obstructing the remaining of positive ions to reach full kinetic energy leading to a saturation of the reactor.

The magnetic cusps is a common technology among some plasma confinement devices: Magnetic well for plasma confinement (US patent: 4007392), Multicusp plasma containment apparatus - Limpaecher (US patent: 4233537), Plasma confining device (US patent: 4430290), Bussard Polywell (US patent: 4826646) and others.

The Bussard Polywell (US patent: 4826646) is similar to the Multicusp plasma containment apparatus - Limpaecher (US patent: 4233537) in injecting charged particles through magnetic cusps.

The Bussard Polywell (US patent: 4826646 - October 29,1985) wherein method steps, in summary, are generating magnetic cusps, injecting electrons through the magnetic cusps to create a negative potential, injecting positively charged particles toward the negative potential, and maintaining the number of electrons greater than the number of positively charged particles. The required excess of electrons leads to a saturation of the reactor limiting its energy production, also the excess of electrons causes excessive electromagnetic radiation (bremsstrahlung) lowering the kinetic energy of the plasma decreasing the nuclear fusion rate.

In a summary, most of the current nuclear fusion reactor approaches have no technical feasibility; some of them are giant and expensive; most of them are relatively radioactive due of using exclusively deuterium-tritium as fuel; most of them consume more energy than it produces; some of them generate fusion at inexpressive rates; some of them are relatively very complex and inefficient; therefore, no practical solution and no foreseeable end in sight to a practical power plant for all of them at present moment.



3. Summary

The CrossFire Fusion Reactor is a nuclear fusion reactor designed by “Douglas” F. Palte for confining and fusing charged particles. The charged particles comprise positive and negative ions from neutronic and aneutronic fuels. For confining radially the charged particles, at least two, preferably six, magnetic fields to form a cusp region for a continuous injection of charged particles. An electric field (first electric potential) at the cusp region for accelerating the charged particles during the injection, and an opposite electric field (second electric potential), at distal ends, for trapping longitudinally the charged particles allowing only charged products to escape. The charged products are worthwhile for spacecraft propulsion and direct electricity conversion. The electric field (second electric potential) acts as an electrostatic lens focusing (converging) the particles as they approach to it. The magnet, preferably comprised by independent winding groups, act as a set of  magnetic lens achieving a best focal length. At the magnetic cusp region, the charged particles are confined by the magnetic mirror phenomenon, and the continuous injection becomes the confinement more efficient yet. The electrostatic acceleration method can reach great kinetic energy, about 600KeV (7 billion °C), at low energy consumption. The preferred embodiment, comprised by six magnets, achieves a true three-dimensional confinement plus a three-dimensional charged particles injection giving a higher probability of fusion reactions. Further including an elementary resonance method for increasing the fusion rate, a high efficient direct electricity conversion by neutralization process, and a system for recycling magnets bore heat energy for generating electricity, becoming self-sustaining.


4. Detailed Description

This nuclear fusion reactor contains a lot of features and specificities, many variations are possible, for example, it can be comprised by two, three, four, five, six, seven, height magnets, and so on, varying form and size of the parts, and various changes can be made. Just remembering that this invention is patent pending, then before making, using, or selling it, please get an inventor agreement. He will be pleased in licensing it for noble-minded purposes like global warming and deforestation reduction, and for outer space travels.

For a better understanding will be described a basic embodiment comprised by two magnets representing the true three-dimensional confinement plus a bi-dimensional ion injection.
For a higher probability of fusion reactions will be described a preferred embodiment comprised by six magnets representing the true three-dimensional confinement plus a three-dimensional ion injection.

As aforesaid, in a bi-dimensional injection, the electrostatic repulsion diverges the ion paths from the central point.
In a three-dimensional injection, the electrostatic repulsion converges the ion paths to the central point.
In the three-dimensional injection, the ions kinetic energy will exchange to potential energy as they approach to the central point, then the kinetic energy must be higher than 123KeV, about 600KeV for boron hydrides.
The three-dimensional injection increases the probability of fusion reactions at the beginning.
The three-dimensional confinement will do the remaining fusion reactions after that.
Nuclear Fusion Reactor - FIG. 1 - Two Magnets Nuclear Fusion Reactor - FIG. 2 - Six Magnets

A preferred embodiment, comprised by six magnets, is shown in FIG. 2, however, for a better understanding, a basic embodiment, comprised by two magnets, is shown in FIG. 1, in where is illustrated a magnet 1 and a magnet 2 joined forming an angle of 180° between each other, and a circular ion injector belt 3 with the output of its ion injectors 4 between the intersection (region of magnetic cusps). The circular injector belt 3 is comprised by twenty ion injector 4 disposed concentrically and equally spaced around the intersection of the magnets. An electrical insulator 5 is attached to magnet 1 and an electrical insulator 6 is attached to magnet 2, both by four bolts each one (see bolt 7).

The ideal structure is illustrated in FIG.2 in where there are six magnets, each one similar to magnet 9, joined forming angles of 90° at adjacencies, and an arc-shaped injector belt 12 with the output of its ion injector between the intersections (region of magnetic cusps). The arc-shaped injector belt 12 is comprised by twelve arcs of arccos (1/3) ≈70.52878°, and by sixty eight ion injectors disposed concentrically and equally spaced around the intersection of the magnets. An electrical insulator 10 is attached to magnet 9 by four bolts (see bolt 11), similarly to others set of magnet and electrical insulator. A cold coolant inlet 8 (FIG. 1), a cold coolant inlet 13 and a hot coolant outlet 14 belongs to a heat exchange system and will be further explained. The intersection of two or more magnets bore forms the reactor chamber.

In the ion injector 4, several types of ion sources can be used (e.g., RF ion source due to its long life), however, it is preferably a duoplasmatron ion source having a low beam angle dispersion in order to produce either positive or negative ions in a well focused beam. A measurement of electron current between the ion source and the ground electric potential (common electric potential), using a conventional ammeter plus a fuel flow meter, can be used to determine charge-to-mass ratio of the plasma. The output of the ion injector is comprised by an electrical insulated material preferably boron nitride. In case of using solid fuels, like decaborane (213°C), then a pre-heating mechanism must be provided for heating the fuel until it vaporizes. Both the circular injector belt 3 and arc-shaped injector belt 12 can have its ion injectors as described above.
Nuclear Fusion Reactor - FIG. 3 - Section Magnet

The magnet coils can be wound as a conventional magnet in a single multilayer winding of enamelled copper wire, however, FIG. 3 illustrates a cross-section taken of magnet 9 to clarity a preferred winding 15 in where is comprised by multiple flat pancake coils (sixteen as illustration) coaxially disposed along the longitudinal axis of the magnet. The flat pancake coils are grouped, preferably in four groups, having each group an independent electrical current source in order to be acting as an independent magnetic lens. A superconducting magnet winding is preferably, typically niobium-titanium (e.g., multifilamentary NbTi copper in epoxy), niobium-tin or copper oxide ceramics (e.g., YBCO, TBCCO, HgBCCO, BSCCO), cooled below a critical temperature by liquid helium, performing a magnetic flux of 4.5 Tesla or better, at low power consumption. A magnet bore 17 is preferably coated with a hard and dense metal alloy, tungsten or depleted uranium covered by a layer of a dielectric material like silicon dioxide or titanium dioxide, in order to reflect electromagnetic radiation keeping low the bore temperature, and more preferably that the coating be done in an electrical insulated annular way or using a powder compound of the metal alloy in order to keep an electrical insulation along the longitudinal axis of the magnet, thereby a voltage produced by inductive reactance of the pancake coils, due to an electrical current variation, can be transferred axially to plasma. Magnet 1 can be done in some way as magnet 9, only differing on openings 16 for the ion injectors and shape of the intersections. The magnets intersection (region of magnetic cusps) is where an acceleration electric potential (first electric potential) is applied.
Nuclear Fusion Reactor - FIG. 4 - Bending

A continuation of the preferred embodiment of FIG. 2 is shown in FIG. 4, further illustrating a partial assembly view (lines of mounting shown as dashed lines) in where the magnet 9 is connected to the electrical insulator 10 by bolts 11. A magnet bending 23 fastened by bolts 22 to an armature 20, fixing the insulator 10 by pressing it inward the armature. The armature, preferably a metal alloy like titanium or stainless steel, sustains the six magnets and its respective electrical insulators, and the magnets are pressed to sustain each other at the intersection region. The assembly described above is repeated, equally spaced at an angle of 120° to the others magnet bending top 23 and as well to a magnet bending bottom 33 equally spaced at angle of 120° to the others magnet bending bottom, where magnet bending top and magnet bending bottom are in an angle of 60°.

The armature 20 keeps the reactor components together, providing support to magnets, insulators, ion injector belt 12 and bending magnets. The armature is where a confinement electric potential (second electric potential) is applied.

The magnet bending is useful to bend the exhausting products of nuclear fusion, the magnet bending top 23 has a bending angle of (90° + (arccos (1/3) / 2)) ≈125.26439°, and the magnet bending bottom 33 has a bending angle of (90° - (arccos (1/3) / 2)) ≈54.73561°. The magnet bending coils can be a single multilayer superconducting magnet winding, much simpler than aforesaid for magnet 9.

Continuing with the embodiment shown in FIG. 4 in where each magnet bending top 23 is connected to an output electrical insulator 26, as well each magnet bending bottom 33 is connected to an output electrical insulator 34. An electrostatic deflector 27 comprised by three plates disposed around the output electrical insulator 26 is to deflect the charged products in order to align its trajectory giving some steering. A hot coolant pipe 21 belongs to a heat exchange system and will be further explained. The neutralizers 25, 28, 29, 30 and 32 are electrons guns (e.g, Lanthanum hexaboride, Cerium hexaboride) and duoplasmatron ion sources used for electricity conversion by neutralization process and will be further explained. An optical fiber top 35, as well an optical fiber bottom 31, is to control and monitor the neutralizers and other components of the reactor which are at different electric potential, thereby optical fiber is preferably due to its high electrical insulation and immunity to an electromagnetic interference.

The electrical insulators for the present invention can be made from several materials types like polytetrafluoroethylene (60MV/m), acrylic glass, ceramic, porcelain, nylon (14MV/m), polyester, polystyrene (24MV/m), neoprene rubber (12MV/m), but the two recommended is boron nitride due to its excellent thermal properties and a dielectric strength of 6MV/m, and the polycarbonate due to its physics properties and dielectric strength of 15MV/m.
Nuclear Fusion Reactor - FIG. 5 - Base

A continuation of the preferred embodiment of FIG. 4 is shown in FIG. 5, further illustrating a fuel reservoir 38, preferably made of graphite-epoxy or carbon fiber reinforced plastic. An electrical transformer 36, and below that a vacuum pump 37, preferably an oil diffusion pump or better, to keep the whole reactor system, preferably including electric and electronic components, in a very low pressure of 10-6 Torr or lower, in order to provide a high electrical insulation of a dielectric strength of 1GV/m, meaning an optimum short circuit preventing. A base 39 is preferably an aluminum alloy to act as a heat sink. The output electrical insulators 26, 34 and so forth are fixed on the base. An air breathing 40 and a landing pad 41 are parts of a spacecraft and will be further described.
A continuation of the preferred embodiment of FIG. 5 is shown in FIG. 6, hiding the magnet bending, output insulators and so on, for illustrating electrical transformer 36, and below that the vacuum pump 37, and further illustrating a battery bank 42, preferably comprising a hydrogen fuel cell. A heat exchange system 43 and a cold coolant pipe 24. An output covering 44 and an exhaust output 57 will be further described.

Nuclear Fusion Reactor - FIG. 6 - Vacuum


Nuclear Fusion Reactor - FIG. 7 - Transformer

The electrical transformer 36 is illustrated in FIG. 7, better illustrating a low voltage power supply 45 of about 250 Volts, an acceleration power supply 46 (first electric potential), and a confinement power supply 47 (second electric potential). The power supplies have a custom bidirectional switching-mode full bridge mosfet technology. The electrical transformer windings no overlap each other, primary and secondary windings are defined dynamically allowing a multidirectional energy flow as will be further described.
Nuclear Fusion Reactor - FIG. 8 - Heat Exchanger

The heat exchange system is illustrated in FIG. 8, in where a coolant, preferably liquid helium due to its low tendency to absorb neutrons, circulates towards a branching 52 by a pipe 48, then towards a magnet coolant inlet 13 (FIG. 2) by a pipe 24 (FIG. 6). The heated coolant circulates from a magnet coolant outlet 14 (FIG. 2) towards a merging 53 by a pipe 21 (FIG. 4), then to a steam turbine 43 by a pipe 49, and then to a conventional internal serpentine of a condenser 51. The steam turbine rotates and transfers its mechanical energy to an electrical generator 50 recycling the heat excess to electricity. The condenser 51 transfers the remaining heat excess to the base 39 (FIG. 6) which is acting as a heat sink. A condenser internal pump circulates the coolant from the serpentines toward the pipe 48 continuing the cycle. The liquid helium, for superconducting magnet requirements, must be cooled down to temperatures of approximately 4.2 Kelvin.
Nuclear Fusion Reactor - FIG. 9A - Core Collapsed Nuclear Fusion Reactor - FIG. 9B - Core Exploded

A continuation of the preferred embodiment of FIG. 2 is shown in FIG. 9A and an exploded assembly view is shown in FIG. 9B (lines of mounting shown as dashed lines), illustrating arc-shaped injector belt 12 and armature 20, in order to clarify the assembly of the set of magnet 9, electrical core insulator 10, one of the bolts 11, the openings 16 for the ion injectors, cold coolant inlet 13 and hot coolant outlet 14. The six magnet assemblies will sustain each other concentrically to the arc-shaped injector belt by being pressed against the armature by the magnets bending already described in FIG. 4. The magnets intersection (region of magnetic cusps) is where the acceleration electric potential (first electric potential) is applied. The armature 20 is where the confinement electric potential (second electric potential) is applied. The ion injectors exchange its electrons with the ground electric potential (common electric potential) to ionize the nuclear fusion fuel.
Nuclear Fusion Reactor - FIG. 10 - Spacecraft

A spacecraft (weigh: 500000kg, height: 22m, diameter: 15m) using the preferred embodiment of FIG. 5 as power plant is shown in FIG. 10, in where three landing pads 41 are equally spaced at an angle of 120° to sustain the base 39 which sustain a hull 55, preferably made of an aluminum alloy of at least 10 cm of thickness to protect against outer space radiation. Three electric thrusters 54, preferably a magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thruster, positioned near the center of mass of the spacecraft or a little above and disposed around the hull equally spaced at an angle of 120°. The electric thruster is preferably moveable around its axis in order to give some steering for stabilization during the launching, re-entry and landing, and some maneuverability in the space. The MPD thrusters must operate during short periods due to its low lifetime. To keep the spacecraft aligned straight ahead for a long time is used the electrostatic deflector 27 as already described in FIG. 4. A six output covering 44 is to cover the six exhaust output 57 during startup of the reactor in order to maintain the vacuum, after the reactor startup, all six outputs covering open letting the products of nuclear reaction, already neutralized by neutralizers, thrust the spacecraft. An air breathing 40, 56, there are six disposed equally spaced around the base at angle of 60°, is to increase the reaction mass when the spacecraft is in an atmospheric environment doing the products of the nuclear reaction heat incoming atmospheric gases expanding it to give more thrusting for the spacecraft. The landing pads 41 are preferably moveable or retractile in order to reduce the aerodynamic drag.
Nuclear Fusion Reactor - FIG. 11 - Alternative

A continuation of the basic or alternative embodiment of FIG. 1 is shown in FIG. 11, further illustrating an armature 63 which keeps the reactor components together, providing support to core insulator 5 and 6, magnet 1 and 2, circular ion injector belt 3. The magnets intersection (region of magnetic cusps) is where the acceleration electric potential (first electric potential) is applied. The armature is where a confinement electric potential (second electric potential) is applied. An extra confinement insulator 60 and a disc 62 are for applying an extra confinement electric potential in order to confine both reactants and products of the nuclear fusion reaction at the top end. The products can only escape at bottom end passing by output insulator 61. An electrostatic deflector 68 comprised by three plates disposed around the output electrical insulator 61 is to deflect the charged products to align its trajectory. The neutralizers 64, 65 and 66 are electrons guns and duoplasmatron ion source used for electricity conversion by neutralization process. An output covering 67 is to cover the exhaust output during startup of the reactor in order to maintain the vacuum. Most of the components are similar to that already cited in FIG. 4, except that there is only one output.
Nuclear Fusion Reactor - FIG. 12 - Alternative Cont.

A continuation of the alternative embodiment of FIG. 11 is shown in FIG. 12, further illustrating a fuel reservoir 68 similar to that previously described in FIG. 5. A base 71 is preferably an aluminum alloy to act as a heat sink. An electrical transformer 69 similar to that previously described in FIG. 7 except that there are an extra electrical voltage for apply an electric potential at disc 62 providing the extra confinement in one of the ends. A heat exchange system 70 similar to that previously described in FIG. 8, an air breathing 72 and a landing pad 73 are similar to that previously described in FIG. 10. A ground wire 74 (common electric potential) for the ion injectors exchange its electrons for ionizing the nuclear fusion fuel. Most of the components are similar to that already cited for the preferred embodiment.



5. Operation of Invention

A basic operation can be better understood from the FIG. 1 in where magnet 1 and magnet 2 generates a magnetic field of same polarity, preferably south, at the intersection between them forming magnetic cusps. The acceleration electric potential (first electric potential) is applied at the region of magnetic cusps. The confinement electric potential (second electric potential), of opposite polarity to the first, is applied to armature 63 (FIG. 11) generating electric fields. The electrical insulators 5 and 6 provide an electrical gap between the armature and the magnets.

For trapping positively charged particles (positive ions) the acceleration electric potential (first electric potential) must have a negative voltage, and the confinement electric potential (second electric potential) must have a positive voltage. Otherwise, for trapping negatively charged particles (negative ions) the acceleration electric potential (first electric potential) must have a positive voltage, and the confinement electric potential (second electric potential) must have a negative voltage. The confinement electric potential can be adjusted for trapping only the reactants allowing the charged products of the nuclear fusion to escape longitudinally overcoming the confinement electric potential.

The ion injectors 4 of the circular injector belt 3, ionizes a nuclear fusion fuel exchanging electrons with the ground electric potential (common electric potential), and the ionized fuel, that is charged particles or ions, is accelerated in an electrostatic way towards the intersection (region of magnetic cusps) reaching the interior of the magnets after passing through the region of magnetic cusps. The charged particles become confined radially by magnetic fields and trapped longitudinally along the axis of the magnets by the electric fields generated by the first and second electric potentials. The armature electric fields, of same polarity of the charged particles, act as an electrostatic lens focusing (converging) the particles as they approach to it and defocusing (diverging) them as they move away from it. The magnetic fields act as a magnetic lens focusing (converging) the charged particles. If the magnets are similar as the previously described in FIG. 3, comprising of a set of independent winding groups, then each group can have its electric current varied independently from the others in order to change the magnetic flux shaping the magnetic field to achieve a best focal length increasing the fusion rate.

The charged particles move longitudinally describing a circular and helical orbit around the magnetic field lines keeping away from the magnet walls, similarly as magnetic confinement fusion reactors. At the region of the magnetic cusps, the magnetic field lines are curved forcing the charged particles to describe a more elliptical and eccentric orbit increasing electrostatic pressure at the region of the magnetic cusps creating a great difficulty to them to escape overcoming this region (magnetic mirror), and the continuous injection of the charged particles by the ion injector belt become it more difficult yet.

The charged particles are confined radially by magnetic fields and trapped longitudinally by first and second electric field in the interior of the magnetic fields and confined by magnetic cusp by magnetic mirror phenomenon, until the charged particles fuse and their charged products may escape longitudinally overcoming the second electric field. Thereby represents a true three-dimensional confinement with an adequate escape mechanism.

Inducing variations preferably by pulses on electrical current of the magnets results in oscillations on magnetic flux transferring radially energy to plasma (pinch effect) increasing the fusion rate.

If the magnets are similar as the previously described in FIG. 3, coated with a hard and dense metal alloy, tungsten or depleted uranium, then most of the electromagnetic radiation (bremsstrahlung) can be reflected back to the plasma recycling its energy increasing the fusion rate. If the coating is done in an electrical insulated annular way or using a powder compound of the metal alloy in order to keep an electrical insulation along the longitudinal axis of the magnet, and if the magnet windings are comprised by multiple flat pancake coils (FIG. 3), then a voltage produced by inductive reactance of the pancake coils, producing an alternating electric field in the bore due to an electrical current variation, can be transferred axially to the plasma increasing a little more the fusion rate.

Inducing oscillations on electric voltage of the first or second potentials, preferably both, most of the energy of the electric oscillations will be transferred longitudinally to the charged particles increasing the fusion rate.

The oscillations described above can be comprised by a modulation and multiplexing of frequencies: a cyclotron rotation at frequency ω+, a magnetron rotation at frequency ω-, and an axial "trapping" oscillation at frequency ωz. The higher frequency is the cyclotron that can be estimated f=qB / (2πm), and the others is by measuring energy production and adjusting the oscillations to reach a maximum synchronization of phase and frequency with the plasma resulting in an increase of the fusion rate. For that, can be a conventional RF generator via a pulse transformer connected in series with the power supplies. Adjusting and measuring the energy production is a simple way to determine the frequencies and can be understood as an elementary resonance method. An excess of electric charge in the reactor chamber can lead to a saturation wasting fuel and reducing the energy production, however, using oscillations for increasing the fusion rate will decrease the electric charge in the reactor chamber allowing injection of more of the charged particles increasing the energy production.

Thoughtfulness about the preferable polarity of the magnetic fields at the intersection between the magnets forming the magnetic cusps region: an electric current on magnet windings develops an electric voltage on its terminals due to resistivity, and a pulse, positive or negative, on electric current develop an electric voltage on its terminals due to inductive reactance. The electric voltage due to resistivity can be too little to take some advantage. Thus the magnetic south polarity is only a predilection, but could be magnetic north polarity if desirable.

The most efficient method of transferring kinetic energy to the charged particles is by electrostatic acceleration, doing this from a ground potential (common electric potential) and allowing the charged particles fall to the acceleration electric potential (first electric potential) exchanging its potential energy to kinetic energy, represents great kinetic energy at low energy consumption (P=V×I; V=0 → P=0). A measurement of electron current between the ion source and the ground electric potential can be used to determine charge-to-mass ratio of the plasma. A duoplasmatron is one of the ion sources that can be used in the ion injector 4, and its advantage is to produce either positive or negative ions. For ionizing the nuclear fusion fuels to the positively charged particles is by extracting electrons from them and sending electrons to the common electric potential, otherwise for ionizing to the negatively charged particles is by extracting electrons from the common electric potential and adding the electrons to the nuclear fusion fuel.

Fusing positively charged particles represents a normal energy production and low bremsstrahlung radiation, otherwise fusing negatively charged particles represents a high energy production and high bremsstrahlung radiation, however, for a highest energy production, the charge-to-mass ratio must keep as low as possible, that is the plasma charged particles must be a quasi-neutral plasma resulting in a high density, which implies in a higher magnetic flux and a higher acceleration and confinement voltage, as will be further understood by calculations.

The nuclear fusion fuel can be composed of light atomic nucleus like hydrogen, deuterium, tritium, helium, lithium, beryllium, boron, and their various isotopes. Some isotopes like hydrogen-1, helium-3, lithium-6, lithium-7 and boron-11 are the interest for aneutronic nuclear fusion (low neutron radiation), in special boron hydrides and helium-3. The fuel specific energy and charge-to-mass ratio are essential for dimensioning the magnet bore, magnetic flux and electric voltages, as will be further understood by calculations.

The injector belt 3 of the basic embodiment (FIG. 1) injects the charged particles only in radial ways, representing a bi-dimensional ion injection plus the true three-dimensional confinement. The injector belt 12 of the preferred embodiment (FIG. 2) injects the charged particles in three orthogonal axes, representing a three-dimensional ion injection plus the true three-dimensional confinement, having higher probability of fusing atomic nucleus.

The six magnet bending 23 and 33 is useful to bend the exhausting products of the nuclear fusion, as previously described for the preferred embodiment in FIG. 4. The alternative embodiment (FIG. 11), comprised by two magnets, dispense the magnet bending, but require an extra confinement potential in order for the exhausting charged products escape through only one of its ends, however, it increases the probability of secondary reactions. The preferred embodiment (FIG. 4) can have its three magnet bending top 23 suppressed and applied an extra confinement electric potential, then the charged products can only escape by its others three magnet bending 33, this can simplify the assembly but increase the secondary fusion reactions meaning more radiation hazards. Thus, more output for the charged products will result less the undesirable secondary fusion reactions.

The base 39 (FIG. 5), as well 71 (FIG. 12), is connected to the ground electric potential (common electric potential). The output electrical insulators 26 and 34 (FIG. 5), as well 61 (FIG. 11), is to provide an electrical insulation between the armature and the base. Surrounding the outputs there are the electrostatic deflector plates 27 (FIG. 5), as well 68 (FIG. 11), to deflect the charged products in order to align its trajectory giving some steering.

The neutralization is essential to prevent that the charged products, after passing through the outputs, turn around and collide back eroding the base and others components, for that, the sum of the electron current of the neutralizers 25, 28, 29, 30, 32 and so forth (FIG. 5) must be equaled to the sum of the electron current of the ion injector belt 12 (FIG. 2). This rule must be applied for the neutralizers 64, 65, 66 and so forth (FIG. 11) and the circular injector belt 3. The electricity conversion by neutralization process will be further explained.
Nuclear Fusion Reactor - FIG. 13 - Schematic

A special power supply system is required to generate voltages for the acceleration electric potential (first electric potential), the confinement electric potential (second electric potential), and for the other components of the nuclear fusion reactor. Its main feature is to allow a multidirectional energy flow used to recycle energy stored in magnets (E=½LI²) and capacitors (E=½CV²) back to a battery bank or to the others power supplies.

A continuation of the FIG. 7 is illustrated as an electronic schematic diagram in FIG. 13 to clarity the multidirectional energy flow, in where the battery bank 42 and a capacitor C1 has electric energy stored, circuit CI1 switches between on and off states the MOSFET transistors T1 and T4, T2 and T3, alternating the electric current to the electrical transformer 36. The diode bridge, comprised by diodes D5 and D8, D6 and D7, convert the alternating electric current from transformer 36 to direct current to supply a capacitor C2 storing the energy in it. This process is well known in a conventional switching-mode power supply having a full bridge technology using either MOSFET or IGBT transistors.

The energy stored in capacitor C2 can be sent back to battery bank 42 and capacitor C1 if circuit CI2 switches between on and off states the MOSFET transistors T5 and T8, T6 and T7, alternating the electric current to the electrical transformer 36, and the diode bridge, comprised by diodes D1 and D4, D3 and D2, convert the alternating electric current from transformer 36 to direct current to supply battery bank 42 and capacitor C1 restoring the energy to it.

The power supplies 45 and 46 have a bidirectional energy flow between them, the transformer 36 have others power supplies attained to it, and, with a suitable control, perform the multidirectional energy flow.

To invert the output polarity of the power supply 46, worthwhile for confining and fusing either positively or negatively charged particles from a duoplasmatron ion source, a circuit CI3 switch on the relays K2 and K3, and switch off the relays K1 and K4, then the terminal V1 have a positive voltage relative to V2, otherwise will have a negative voltage.

To achieve high voltages for acceleration and confinement potentials, several power supplies, similarly as described above, must be connected in series from the ground electric potential (common electric potential). Some power supplies have a high electric voltage between them (millions Volts). For that, and to control and monitor the whole system, an optical fiber 80 is the most recommended due to its high electrical insulation and immunity to an electromagnetic interference. The control system 81 controls and monitors the power supplies and other reactor components via the optical fiber 80, as well 31 and 35 (FIG. 4), using a semi-duplex protocol.

Before explaining the electricity conversion from the charged products, is useful to remember some physics electric concepts: extracting electrons from a positive terminal of a charged capacitor will increase its voltage and consequently increase its stored energy (E=½CV²), otherwise extracting electrons from a negative terminal of the charged capacitor will decrease its voltage and consequently decrease its stored energy. Another way to think is allowing electrons towards to the positive terminal of the charged capacitor will decrease its voltage and consequently decrease its stored energy (E=½CV²), otherwise pushing electrons towards to the negative terminal of the charged capacitor will increase its voltage and consequently increase its stored energy.

The method of converting kinetic energy from charged products in electricity is by neutralization process, where neutralizer particles comprise either electrons or positive ions. If the products of the nuclear fusion reaction are positively charged then the positive confinement electric potential forces the positively charged products to exchange its kinetic energy to potential energy, and the positively charged products attract easily electrons from the neutralizer 25 (FIG. 4) which is at the positive confinement electric potential. The electron extraction from the positive potential will increase the voltage of the capacitor C2 of the switching-mode power supply (similar to FIG. 13). The charged products lose kinetic energy and will not reach full acceleration to the ground electric potential after being neutralized.The circuit CI2 can send the energy received from the charged products to the transformer 36 allowing the flow of electrons from its ground to reduce the positive voltage, for that must switch its transistors, as previously described in FIG. 13, sending excess of energy to the electrical transformer, and the power supply 45 can receive the energy by its diode bridge and then supply the battery bank 42 or other power supply. The whole process is controlled, in a synchronized mode, by the control system 81. The received electric power is calculated by formula: P = V × I, that is, the electric potential versus flow of electrons equals to the energy flow received from the charged products.

Otherwise, if the products of the nuclear fusion reaction are negatively charged then the negative confinement electric potential forces the negatively charged products to exchange its kinetic energy to potential energy, and the negatively charged products attract easily positive ions from the neutralizer 25 (FIG. 4), preferably a duoplasmatron, which is at the negative confinement electric potential. The neutralizer electrons pushed towards to the negative potential will increase the voltage of the capacitor C2 of the switching-mode power supply (similar to FIG. 13). The charged products lose kinetic energy and will not reach full acceleration to the ground electric potential after being neutralized. The stored energy in the capacitor C2 can be sent to others power supplies as previously described.

The method of transferring electric energy to increase the kinetic energy of the charged products is also by ion neutralization. This method is useful for spacecraft propulsion purposes like stabilization. If the products of the nuclear fusion reaction are positively charged then a negative electric potential, can be applied to the deflector 27 (FIG. 4), increasing the kinetic energy of the positively charged products, and the positively charged products attract easily electrons from the neutralizer 28 (FIG. 4) which is at the negative electric potential. The electron extraction from the negative potential will decrease the voltage of the capacitor C2 of the switching-mode power supply (similar to FIG. 13). The charged products gain more kinetic energy reaching an extra acceleration to the ground electric potential before being neutralized. The power supply 45 must send more energy to the power supply 46 via transformer 36 to restore the voltage of the capacitor C2. The transferred electric power is calculated by formula: P = V × I, as previously described.

Otherwise, if the products of the nuclear fusion reaction are negatively charged then a positive electric potential, can be applied to the deflector 27 (FIG. 4), increasing the kinetic energy of the negatively charged products, and the negatively charged products attract easily positive ions from the neutralizer 28 (FIG. 4), preferably a duoplasmatron, which is at the positive electric potential. The neutralizer electrons pushed towards to the positive potential will decrease the voltage of the capacitor C2 of the switching-mode power supply (FIG. 13). The charged products gain more kinetic energy reaching an extra acceleration to the ground electric potential before being neutralized. The power supply 45 must send more energy to the power supply 46 via transformer 36 to restore the voltage of the capacitor C2, similarly as previously described.

After accomplished desired conversions of energy as described above, which can excess 95% of efficiency using aneutronic fuels like boron hydrides and helium-3, the remaining of the charged products must be fully neutralized, for that, there are neutralizer like 29 and 32 (FIG. 4) at the ground electric potential. As previously described, the sum of the electron current of the neutralizers must be equaled to the sum of the electron current of the ion injector belt.

The heat exchange system, previously described in FIG. 8, can recycle the magnet bore heat energy, due to electromagnetic radiation, to generate electricity. It is also worthwhile for recycling heat energy from fast neutrons if using neutronic fuels like deuterium.

The operation of the alternative embodiment FIG. 11 and FIG. 12 are similar to the preferred embodiment.


6. Power Plant for Testing
Nuclear Fusion Reactor - FIG. 14 - Power Plant

A Power Plant for Testing is shown in FIG. 14, in where is illustrated the preferred embodiment, previously explained in FIG. 9A and FIG. 9B, comprised by six magnets 9, six core insulators 10, armature 20 and injector belt 12. Further comprising three supports 58 to sustain the embodiment, six output insulators 18, six output disc 19 and six neutralizers 25. The heat exchange system, previously explained in FIG. 8, comprised by pipes 48, 49, 24 and 21, steam turbine 43, condenser 51 and electrical generator 50. The electrical transformer 36, previously explained in FIG. 7, comprised by low voltage power supply 45, acceleration power supply 46, confinement power supply 47 and battery bank 42. The vacuum pump 37.
Nuclear Fusion Reactor - FIG. 15 - Core Exploded

An exploded assembly view is shown in FIG. 15, in order to clarify the assembly of the set of magnet 9, electrical core insulator 10, output insulator 18, output disc 19 and neutralizer 25.

The operation is similar to previously explained, except that there are only essential components for testing the electricity generation.

The output disc 19 where is applied a positive potential to force the products of the nuclear fusion reaction to exchange its kinetic energy to potential energy, and the positively charged products attract easily electrons from the neutralizer(electron gun) 25, and the neutralizer extract electrons from a positive terminal of capacitor C2 (FIG. 13) increasing its positive voltage, which increases its stored energy (E=½CV²), then the switching-mode power supply 47 send this energy to battery bank 42 via electrical transformer 36 and power supply 45.


7. Calculations

As aforesaid, the nuclear fusion fuel for this disclosure can be composed of light atomic nucleus like hydrogen, deuterium, tritium, helium, lithium, beryllium, boron, and their various isotopes. Some isotopes like hydrogen-1, helium-3, lithium-6, lithium-7 and boron-11 are the interest for aneutronic nuclear fusion (low neutron radiation hazards), as example: [1]

1H + 2 6 Li 4He + (3He + 6Li) → 3 4He + 1 20.9  MeV ( 153  TJ/kg ≈  42  GWh/kg)
1H + 7 Li → 2  4He + 17.2  MeV ( 204  TJ/kg ≈ 56  GWh/kg)
3He  + 3 He 4He + 2 1H + 12.9  MeV ( 205  TJ/kg ≈ 57  GWh/kg)
1H + 11 B → 3 4He + 8.7  MeV ( 66  TJ/kg ≈ 18  GWh/kg)

Boron and helium-3 are special aneutronic fuels, due to its primary reaction produce less than 0.2% of the total energy as fast neutrons, meaning that a minimum of radiation shield is required for a spacecraft, and the products kinetic energy is directly convertible to electricity with a high efficiency, more than 95%, as previously described.

Borax is available in the Earth's crust and helium-3 is available in the lunar regolith, both are relatively plentiful if in comparison to tritium.

With hydrogen, boron forms a series of chemical compounds called borane or boron hydrides, as example, decaborane (B10H14) which have low toxicity and high density (950kg/m3), and relatively inexpensive taking account that it is clean and its energy density is higher than the fossil fuels (18×106 kWh/kg versus 13 kWh/kg).

The following calculations take decaborane (B10H14) as example:
1H + 11B + 123keV → 3 4He + 8.68MeV (66 TJ/kg ≈ 18 GWh/kg)
There are 10 × (1H + 11B) reactions and a rest of 4 × (1H)


Electronvolt (eV) is a unit of energy and a Volt (V) is a unit of electric voltage.
Electronvolt to Joule: 1 eV = 1.60218×10-19J
Electronvolt to temperature: 1 eV = 11604.505 Kelvin → 1 eV = 11604.505 K -273.15 = 11331.355 °C
Electronvolt to mass: 1 eV = 1.782662×10-36 kg → 1 MeV = 1.782662×10-30 kg
Charge: proton= +1.60218×10-19 C, electron= -1.60218×10-19 C
Particles mass: proton=1.67262×10-27 kg, neutron=1.67493×10-27 kg, electron=0.00091×10-27 kg
11B mass= 5 protons + 5 electrons + 6 neutrons = 5×1.67262×10-27 + 5×0.00091×10-27 + 6×1.67493×10-27 =
         18.41723×10-27 kg

1H mass= 1 proton + 1 electron = 1×1.67262×10-27 + 1×0.00091×10-27 = 1.67353×10-27 kg
Decaborane (B10H14) mass: 10×18.41723×10-27 + 14×1.67353×10-27 = 207.60172×10-27 kg

Specific energy of decaborane (eV/kg):
10 × (8.68MeV-123keV) / (207.60172×10-27 kg) = 4.12183×1032 eV/kg

Specific energy of decaborane (J/kg):
4.12183×1032 × 1.60218 ×10-19 = 66.03921×1012 J/kg

Specific energy of decaborane (GWh/kg):
66.03921×1012 / (3.6×106) = 18.34422×106 kWh/kg = 18.34422 GWh/kg

Extracting 14 electrons from decaborane to produce positively charged particles:
207.60172×10-27 -14×0.00091×10-27 = 207.58898×10-27 kg

Charge-to-mass ratio of decaborane(C/kg) after extracting 14 electrons:
14×1.60218×10-19 / 207.58898×10-27 = +10.80525×106 C/kg

The specific energy and charge-to-mass ratio are essential parameters to define the magnetic flux and electrical potentials.

Using the specific energy to find velocity of products from nuclear reaction:
E=½mv2 → v= ((E/m) × 2)0.5 → v= ((66.03921×1012) ×2) 0.5 → v=11.49254×106 m/s

Specific impulse: 11.49254×106 / 9.80665 = 1.17191×106 s

Defining the magnet bore about 1 meter (0.5 meter of internal radius) and using the charge-to-mass ratio to find magnetic flux:
r=mv/qB → r= (v/B) × (m/q) → r= (v/B) / (q/m) → B=v/(r × (q/m)) →
B=11.49254×106 / (0.5×10.80525×106) = 2.12721 Tesla

A superconducting magnet of 4.5 Tesla or higher and about 1 meter of bore is sufficient to confine radially the plasma (reactants and products).

The reactants (1H + 11B) needs at least 123keV of kinetic energy for fusing, however 600keV is considered the best, nevertheless, in theory, only 123keV is consumed by the reaction. Losses caused by electromagnetic radiation (bremsstrahlung) are considered a fail of the coating of the magnet bore responsible to reflect the electromagnetic radiation back to plasma.

Calculation of a negative electric potential (first electric potential) for electrostatic acceleration of the positively charged particles to gain enough kinetic energy to fuse:
E = q×V → V=E/q → V= (E/m)/ (q/m) →
V= ((10×600keV×1.60218×10-19)/207.58898×10-27)/ 10.80525×106 = 428.57165×103 Volts
Temperature: 600×103× (11604.505 K -273.15) = 6.79881 billion °C

An electric potential (first electric potential) of -430 kV is enough to the charged particles gain the required kinetic energy of about 7 billions °C.

Calculation of a positive potential (second electric potential) to confine longitudinally the reactants allowing the charged products (helium-4) escaping. A kinetic energy choice between reactants 600keV and products 8.68MeV would be something about 1.4MeV (suitable for lithium hydride cross section too):
E = q×V → V=E/q → V= (E/m)/ (q/m) →
V= ((10×1.4MeV×1.60218×10-19)/207.58898×10-27)/ 10.80525×106 = 928.57191×103 Volts
V = 928.57191×103 - 430 kV = 498.57191×103 Volts

A positive electric potential (second electric potential) of +500 kV is enough to confine the reactants allowing the products to escape.

As aforesaid, fusing positively charged particles represents a normal energy production and low bremsstrahlung radiation, otherwise fusing negatively charged particles represents a high energy production and high bremsstrahlung radiation, however, for highest energy production, the charge-to-mass ratio must keep as low as possible, that is the plasma charged particles must be a quasi-neutral plasma resulting in a high density, which implies in a higher magnetic flux and a higher acceleration and confinement voltage.

The consumption of the reactor at power of 200MWatts using a fuel with specific energy of 66.03921×1012J/kg:
200MW = 200×106 J/s → 200×106 J/s / 66.03921×1012 J/kg = 3.02850×10-6 kg/s

A fuel consumption of 3.03 milligrams per second is enough for producing 200MWatts.
Ion source current: 3.02850×10-6 kg/s × 10.80525×106 C/kg = 32.72374 C/s
The ion injector belt must provide a current of at least 32.8 Amperes for producing 200MWatts.

Cyclotron frequency: f= qB/ (2πm) = (q/m) × (B/2π) = 10.80525×106 × 4.5/ (2×3.14159) = 7.73869 MHz
Magnetic pressure: pm = B2/2µ° = 4.52/ (2×4π×10-7) = 8.05721×106 J/m3
8.05721×106 / 101325 = 79.51848 atmospheres

Fuel consumption for a spacecraft of 500000kg (500 tons) to reach an acceleration(a=∆v/∆t) of 20m/s2:
1) m1v1 + m2v2 = 0 → 500×103×20 + m2×11.49254×106 = 0 → m2 = 0.87013 kg
  or by Tsiolkovsky rocket equation: ∆v=ve×ln(mi/mf) → 20 = 11.49254×106×ln(500×103/(500×103-m2)) → m2 = 0.87013 kg
2) ½m1v1² + ½m2v2² = E → ½500×103×20² + ½0.87013×(11.49254×106)² = E → E = 56.46282×1012 J

A fuel consumption of 0.87013 kg/s is enough for a spacecraft of 500000kg (500 tons) reach an acceleration of 20m/s2 (2 g-force).

A travel between Earth and Moon (perigee=348 200 km and apogee=402 100 km) at an acceleration of 20 m/s2 (2 g-force):
Midway: s= (103× (348200 + 402100)/2)/2=187.575×106m
s=s0+v0t+½at2 → 187.575×106=0+0+½×20×t2→ t=4.33099×103 s → t×2 ≈ 3 hours
v2=v02+2a∆s→ v2 = 0+2×20×187.575×106→ v=86.61986×103m/s→ v=311.83149×103km/h
Fuel consumption: 0.87013× (2×4.33099×103) = 7537.04865kg

The travel between Earth and Moon, including acceleration and deceleration, will take 3 hours and a decaborane consumption of 7537.04865kg, reaching a maximum velocity of 311.83×103km/h at the midway.

A travel between Earth and Mars (closest=55 758 006 km and farthest=400 000 000 km) at an acceleration of 20 m/s2 (2 g-force):
Midway: s= (103× (55758006 + 400000000)/2)/2=113.93950×109m
s=s0+v0t+½at2 → 113.93950×109=0+0+½×20×t2→ t=106.74244×103 s → t×2 ≈ 3 days
v=v0+at → v=0+20×106.74244×103 → v=2.13485×106m/s → v=7.68546×106km/h
v2=v02+2a∆s → v2 = 0+2×20×113.93950×109 → v=2.13485×106m/s → v=7.68546×106km/h
Fuel consumption: 0.87013× (2×106.74244×103) = 185.75959×103kg

The travel between Earth and Mars, including acceleration and deceleration, will take 3 days and a decaborane consumption of 185.76×103kg , reaching a maximum velocity of 7.68×106km/h at the midway.

World energy consumption per year is about 500EJ (500×1018Joule ≈ 5708 TWh):
Energy density of the fossil fuels: 13 kWh/kg = 46.9×106J/kg
Fossil fuel consumption: 500×1018/46.9×106=10.66098×1012kg
That is about 10.66 billion tons of carbon dioxide (CO2) and other toxic gases going to atmosphere each year increasing the greenhouse effect.
Specific energy of the decaborane: 18×106 kWh/kg = 66×1012J/kg
Decaborane consumption: 500×1018/66×1012=7.57575×106kg
That will be only 7576 tons of clean, inert, safe and light helium gas ascending above the ozone layer per year. Some helium gas may escape to the outer space and be swept by the solar wind.

This nuclear fusion reactor evolves an improved fusion energy apparatus, that can be used to generate electricity at high efficiency; to thrust a spacecraft at very high performance levels, at inexpressive radiation hazards, requiring insignificant shielding; relatively inexpensive and abundant fuel supply; having a scalability of size and power, easier engineering and maintainability.


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References

1. Atzeni S., Meyer-ter-Vehn J (2004). "The Physics of Inertial Fusion: Beam Plasma Interaction, Hydrodynamics, Hot Dense Matter".

2. US patent 3,386,883 (1968-06-04) P.T. Farnsworth, Method and apparatus for producing nuclear-fusion reactions.

3. US4,826,646 (PDF version) (1989-05-02) Robert W. Bussard, Method and apparatus for controlling charged particles.

4. US4,233,537 (PDF version) (1980-11-11) Rudolf Limpaecher, Multicusp plasma containment apparatus.

5. Todd H. Rider (1994-04-15). "A general critique of inertial-electrostatic confinement fusion systems".

6. Todd H. Rider (1995-05-19). Fundamental limitations on fusion systems not in equilibrium p161

7. S. Son , N.J. Fisch (2004-06-12). "Aneutronic fusion in a degenerate plasma".

8. Ralph W. Moir (1997). "Direct Energy Conversion in Fusion Reactors".

9. G. L. Kulcinski (2000-10-15). "Advanced Fusion Fuels Presentation".

10. E. N. Slyuta (2007). "The estimation of helium-3 probable reserves in lunar regolith".

11. Andrew Seltzman (2008-05-30). "Design Of An Actively Cooled Grid System To Improve Efficiency In Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion Reactors". www.rtftechnologies.org. Retrieved 2010-01-16.

12. "Bremsstrahlung Radiation Losses in Polywell Systems", R.W. Bussard and K.E. King, EMC2, Technical Report EMC2-0891-04, July, 1991

13. James H. Underwood (2001-01-31). "X-Ray Data Booklet - Multilayers and Crystals".

14. A.F. Jankowski, et al. (2004-10-22). "Boron-carbide barrier layers in scandium-silicon multilayers".

15. David L. Windt, et al. (2009-10-10). "Performance optimization of Si/Gd extreme ultraviolet multilayers".




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FAQ - Frequently Asked Questions

Is it possible for a bore coated with hard and dense metal alloy like tungsten or depleted uranium to reflect most of the Bremsstrahlung and other electromagnetic radiation back to plasma?
Yes. Bremsstrahlung radiation is in the X-ray region of the electromagnetic spectrum and most of the electromagnetic radiation from an aneutronic fusion is also in this range. However, only X-rays at very shallow angles can be more effectively reflected, hence an alternate layer of tungsten and boron carbide (W/B4C) can improve the X-ray reflection. 

Does Electrostatic Acceleration have low energy consumption?
Electrostatic acceleration consumes low energy to reach great kinetic energy, and CrossFire Reactor does Not have a central grid to cause losses. 

How do you prevent the high temperature plasma (7 billion °C) from causing a meltdown in the fusion reactor?
The fuel is injected with great kinetic energy (600keV), but in small quantities, and calculations are done for the magnetic and electric fields to confine the plasma, keeping it away from the chamber walls. 

How do you prevent the magnetic reconnection phenomena from causing an explosion that would damage the superconducting magnets?
Keeping the amount of plasma safely controlled, always measured and in small quantities. 

How to energize the powerful superconducting magnets preventing that the field of one magnet does not inhibit the current in another?
The magnetic inductance does not inhibit direct current (DC), the inductive magnetic reactance only slows down the startup. Also, the armature is designed to sustain all parts together. 

Is the electric field inside the armature zero?
No. The armature is positive; core is negative, ions from ground potential, there is no problem with wires if correctly placed, an electric field is present at the end of each magnet. 

Could you try to explain it using other words?
The system has 6 magnets set up on 3 axes, opposing each other, supplied by a steady-state direct current, with a continuous ion injection through the cusps, electric fields applied at the end of magnets controlling escape, a well-dosed quantity of plasma preventing uncontrolled magnetic reconnection from blowing up the reactor, and in a state of quasi-isotropic confinement. 

How do you prevent the plasma from escaping through the magnetic cusp?
By the continuous ion injection, moreover, the magnetic cusp acts like a "magnetic bottle" and each magnet has a set of coils grouped for controlling it. 

Is CrossFire Reactor similar to Farnsworth-Hirsh Fusor in having a central grid?
No. CrossFire Reactor does not have a central grid. 

Is CrossFire Reactor similar to Bussard Polywell in having recirculation of electrons?
No. CrossFire Reactor uses continuous injection of ions and there is no recirculation of electrons. 

How do fusion reactions take place? Compression or collisions?
CrossFire Reactor does not rely on compression; it relies on the collision of ions, needing kinetic energy and confinement. 

Is it preferable that the plasma be neutral?
Yes. However, in practice, it is impossible because the confinement becomes unstable. The next best choice is a strong magnetic field and a low charge-to-mass ratio (C/kg) to keep the plasma in a quasi-neutral state. 

How do fusion reactions take place?
The CrossFire Reactor does not need a sophisticated physics concept to work. It's really quite simple.
It simply relies on ion collisions, needing kinetic energy and confinement.
In this case, there is more focus in a set up that achieves a tridimensional injection and confinement. 

What about the name CrossFire Fusor?
The name Fusor is short of fusion reactor, and the name CrossFire is due to both the confinement and injection being done three-dimensionally. It also can be called the CrossFire Fusion Reactor.







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